Measles is an acute, highly infectious, contagious viral disease that can present complications, especially in children and people with compromised immunity. Exposed individuals can get the infection by contact with droplets transmitted by coughing or sneezing.
Last year, Brazil had a significant increase in the number of measles cases and therefore lost the certificate of elimination of the disease granted by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO).
Measles is a notifiable disease. Thus, the medical service that confirmed the diagnosis triggers the Health Surveillance to perform the vaccination among people who had contact with someone infected by the disease, when necessary.
Learn more about the disease and the measles vaccine with information from the São Paulo Municipal Health Secretariat and the São Paulo State Epidemiological Surveillance Center.
SYMPTOMS AND COMPLICATIONS OF MEASLES
The symptoms that precede the disease generally last from three to five days and are characterized by: fever, malaise, runny nose, conjunctivitis, cough and lack of appetite.
Red spots on the skin appear in the region behind the ear, spreading across the face, neck, upper limbs, trunk and lower limbs. The fever persists with the appearance of spots.
NOn the third day, the spots on the skin tend to decrease and disappear, also showing a fine flaking; fever tends to disappear in this period as well. If the fever persists, this can be a sign of a complication of the disease.
People with measles should stay away from close contact with other people to avoid transmission.
The most common complications are: acute otitis media; bacterial pneumonia; laryngitis and laryngotracheitis, in addition to heart disease (myocarditis, pericarditis), among others.
LEARN ABOUT THE VACCINE
The vaccine that should be taken is the triple viral, which protects against measles, mumps and rubella. Its effectiveness is 97%. It should be applied in two doses from the child’s first year of life.
WHO SHOULD GET THE VACCINE
All children from 12 months to under 7 years old ((6 years, 11 months and 29 days) should take one dose at 12 months (triple viral) and the second dose at 15 months (viral tetra);
Children aged 6 months to 1 year should be vaccinated only in situations of vaccine blockade, that is, when the disease affects someone within a community, and everyone in their surroundings needs to receive the vaccine.
People aged 7 to 29 who have not been vaccinated previously should receive two doses of the triple viral vaccine, with a minimum interval of 30 days between them.
People aged 29 to 59 years old in 2019 (born after 1960), who have not been vaccinated previously, should receive only one dose of the triple viral vaccine;
People between 1 and 29 years of age who have not been vaccinated or have not taken both doses should receive both doses of the triple viral vaccine, with a minimum interval of 30 days between them. If you have received a dose at any age, you only need to complete the vaccination schedule.
Adults who have not been vaccinated and have not had the disease in childhood should also get the vaccine.
People who have already had any of these diseases (measles, mumps and rubella) should also be vaccinated, as the triple viral vaccine immunizes against other disease.
Those who do not remember or do not have proof of immunization in the vaccination card should get the vaccine.
The tetra viral vaccine protects against measles, mumps, rubella and chickenpox. It should be taken from 15 months of age, only after having previously received a dose of Triple Viral.
WHO CANNOT TAKE THE VACCINE
The vaccine is contraindicated for for pregnant women, individuals with compromised immunity and children under 6 months.